Glossary of Paper Terms

Glossary of Paper Terms

F

Fadeout Halftone
A general reduction in the overall contrast of a halftone, to allow type to be easily readable when printed over it.
Fake Duotone
A two-color reproduction, using single halftone negative, usually blank, and a halftone screen tint for the background, usually in color.
Fanfold
Continuous multiple ply form manufactured from a single wide web which is folded longitudinally.
Fanout
In printing, distortion of paper on the press due to waviness in the paper caused by absorption of moisture at the edges of the paper, particularly across the grain.
Fast-Drying Ink
An ink that dries soon after printing.
Feathering
Tendency of an ink image to spread with a fuzzy, "feather like" edge.
Feed Rollers
On a printing press, the rubber wheels that move the sheets of paper from the feed pile to the grippers.
Feeder
The section of a printing press that separates the sheets and feeds them into position for printing.
Feel
Term expressing an individual’s impression of a paper’s finish and stiffness or suppleness.
Feet-Per-Minute
Abbreviated FPM, this term refers usually to the speed of a papermaking machine in terms of how many feet per minute the forming web of paper traverses the length of the machine.
Felt Finish
A finish applied to the paper at the wet end of the paper machine by using felts of a distinctive weave rather than standard or regular wove felts. ENVIRONMENT® Papers.
Felt Side
Top side of the paper, opposite from the wire side or underneath. The "right side of the paper".
Felt
Woven, endless belt made of wool, cotton or synthetic materials used to transport the paper web on the paper machine, during manufacture. Felts act as a conveyor while at the same time removing water from paper as it progresses through the paper machine.
Fiber Orientation
Refers to the alignment of the fibers in the sheet. The degree of alignment can be controlled in the paper making process.
Fiber
The small strands of wood, cotton or other cellulose product that is used to make the paper. In the premium paper market all of the fiber is lignin free. Fiber before it is made into the finished product us referred to as pulp.
Fibrillae
String-like elements that are loosened from the paper fibers during the beating process. They aid in the bonding processes when paper is being manufactured.
Fibrillation
Act of loosening the fibrillae during the mechanical process of beating the fibers in preparation for papermaking.
Filler
Minerals, such as clay and other white pigments, added to pulp to improve the opacity, smoothness, brightness, and printing capabilities of paper.
Filling In
A condition in offset lithography where ink fills the area between the halftone dots or plugs up the type; also known as plugging or filling up.
Fill
Maximum width of paper that can be made on any given paper machine.
Film Mechanical
A mechanical on which type and design elements in the form of film positives are stripped into position on a sheet of base film.
Final Negatives
Negatives that are right reading, emulsion down.
Fine Merchant, Fine Paper Distributor
Firm which confines its sales and distribution activities to fine printing papers only.
Fine Papers
Types of papers used for writing, printing, and cultural purposes.
Finish
The physical look and feel of the paper’s surface. These include smooth, felt, laid, linen and others.
Finished Art
Hand lettering, charts, color blocks, illustrations, photographs, etc., ready for camera.
Finishing Broke
Discarded paper resulting from any finishing operation.
First Color Down
The first color printed as the sheet passes through the press.
Flag
A strip of paper protruding from a roll or skid of paper. May be used to mark a splice in a roll of paper or used to mark off reams in a skid.
Flash Exposure
In halftone photography, the supplementary exposure given to strengthen the dots in the shadow areas of negatives.
Flat Color
Printing two or more colors without overlaying color dots (i.e. without color trap); individual color matching. This differs from process color, which is a blending of four colors to produce a broad range of colors.
Flat Etching
The chemical reduction of the silver deposit in a continuous-tone or halftone plate, brought about by placing it in a tray containing an etching solution.
Flat
In offset lithography, the assembled composite of negatives, usually on goldenrod paper, ready for platemaking. Also, a photograph or halftone that is lacking contrast.
Flatbed Press
A press on which plates are positioned along a flat metal bed against which the paper is pressed by the impression cylinder, as compared to a rotary press which prints from curved plates.
Flatbed Scanner
A device that scans images in a manner similar to a photocopy machine; the original art is positioned face down on a glass plate.
Flexography
Letterpress printing using a form of relief printing ; formally called aniline printing. Synthetic or rubber relief plates, special inks, presses procedures.
Flop
To reverse a negative or positive, to bring the underside out on top. A negative that must be flopped has emulsion on the wrong side.
Flow
The property of ink which causes it to level out when still a liquid; "short" inks have poor flow, and "long" inks have good flow.
Fluorescent Inks
Extremely brilliant inks containing fluorescent pigments.
Flush Cover
Cover of a book that has been trimmed to the same dimensions as the text papers.
Flyleaf
Unprinted page that is part of a printed signature. It also can be a synonym for end-leaf.
Fog
An undesirable neutral density in the clear areas of a photographic film or paper, in which the image is either locally or entirely veiled by a deposit of silver. Fog may be due to flare, unsafe darkroom illumination, age, or processing conditions.
Foil
A tissue-like material in sheet or roll form covered on one side with a metallic coloring used for stamping.
Folding Endurance
A paper test which measures the number of double (back and forth) folds that can be made on a sheet of paper under tension, before it breaks.
Foldout
A page that exceeds the dimensions of a single page. It is folded to page size and included in the book, sometimes bound in and sometimes tipped in (pasted).
Folio
Refers to sheet size 17x22 or larger. Also, page numbers.
Foot
The bottom of a page of printed information.
Formation
Refers to the uniformity or lack of it in the distribution of the fibers when manufacturing paper; can be observed by looking through the sheet; a good formation is uniform or "Close", while a poor formation is not.
Fountain Solution
In lithography, a solution of water, a natural or synthetic gum and other chemicals used to dampen the plate and keep non-printing areas from accepting ink.
Fountain
The unit on a press that contains ink to be fed to the distributing system, and the part that feeds the fountain solution to the dampening system.
Four-Color Process
The four basic colors of ink (yellow, magenta, cyan, and black), which reproduce full-color photographs or art.
Fourdrinier
A paper machine developed by Louis Robert and financed by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier that produces a continuous web of paper; also the term for the section of the paper machine which is a continuous "wire" or belt screen, through which the first removal of water occurs. The point of formation.
Four-Sided Trim (trim 4)
After the job is printed and folded, a trim will be taken off all four sides to remove any reference or registration marks and give a clean edge to the pile of sheets.
For Position Only (FPO)
In digital imaging, typically a low-resolution image positioned in a document to be replaced later with a higher resolution version of the same image.
Free-Sheet
Paper made with pulp created in a kraft process that has removed the lignin. Freesheet paper has more longevity than groundwood which contains lignin.(Newspaper is made with groundwood)
French Fold
A sheet printed on one side and folded first vertically and then horizontally to produce a four-page folder.
Furnish
The mixture of fiber and other materials that is blended in the water suspension, or slurry, from which paper or board is made; usually about 1% solid material with 99% or the balance being water.
FSC - Forest Stewardship Council
An independent, international, environmentally and socially oriented forest certification organization. It trains, accredits and monitors third-party certifiers around the world and works to establish international forest management standards. ENVIRONMENT® Paper has four colors that are FSC certified.
Fuzz (fluff)
Loose fibers projecting from a paper's surface.

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