Glossary of Paper Terms

Glossary of Paper Terms

D

D.T. Cover
Double-thick" describes a sheet of paper made by bonding two thicknesses of paper together resulting in an extra-stiff sheet.
Damp Streaks
Streaks caused by uneven pressing of drying during paper manufacturing.
Dampeners
In lithography, cloth covered, parchment paper or rubber rollers that distribute the dampening to the press plate.
Dampening
Water, gum buffered acid, and various types of etches used to keep the non-image areas of the plate moist, and preventing them from accepting ink, in the lithographic printing process; also called fountain solution.
Dandy Roll
(1) A plain roll situated above the wet web of the paper to provide a smoothing action to the top surface of the paper as it passes under the roll. (2) A watermarking dandy roll is a roll of skeletal structure, sheathed in a wire cloth that has designs, letters or figures affixed to it. As the wet paper web passes under the turning watermark dandy the designs are impressed into the paper and a permanent watermark is left in the sheet.
Day-Glo
Trade name for inks and papers containing fluorescent pigments.
Debossing
The process in which the image is recessed into the paper.
Deckle
On the wet end of the paper machine the straps or deckle rulers that prevent the fiber from overflowing the sides of the machine. The deckle determines how wide the paper on a particular machine will be.
Deckle Edge
Refers to the feathered edge on paper produced when fibers flow against the deckle or edge of the web. Deliberately produced for aesthetic purposes, a deckle edge is found especially on formal stationery and announcements. A deckle edge can be created by an air jet, or also by a stream of water.
Decurler
A device on a web press or sheeter used to remove paper curl.
Decurling
A paper decurling station on a sheeter or web press, used to remove paper curl.
De-Inking
A process which removes ink, toner, coatings and most fillers from recovered paper. The environmental priority is to make this process TCF, totally chlorine free. All of the post consumer fiber used in ENVIRONMENT® Papers is manufactured TCF.
Dirt Count
The average amount of dirt in a specific size of paper area. Both virgin and recycled sheets have "dirt," although recycled paper has significantly higher dirt counts. The dirt should always be small enough not to interfere with the quality of the finished printed piece.
Delamination
A separation of the paper's surface.
Delivery
Area of the originating press where the freshly printed sheets are piled as they leave the impression section.
Densitometer
Reflection instrument measuring the density of colored ink to determine its consistency throughout a press run.
Density
Identifies the weight of paper compared to the volume; it is directly related to the paper's absorbency, stiffness, and opacity.
Descender
The parts of lower case letters that extend below the baseline.
Die
A design, letters, or pattern cut in metal for stamping, embossing or for diecutting.
Die-Cutting
Male and female dies are used to cut out paper or board in desired shapes.
Digester
Pressure vessel in which wood chips are cooked to separate fibers from each other and to remove detrimental particles.
Dimensional Stability
Characteristic of paper to retain its dimensions in all directions under the stress of production and adverse changes in humidity.
Dirt
Dirt in paper consists of any imbedded foreign matter or specks, which contrast in color to the remainder of the sheet.
Dished
Concave rather than flat pile of paper. Also refers to roll ends of paper that are not flat.
Distributor
Company which purchases paper from mill for resale to printers and end-users. Usually a distributor has protected or franchised product lines and territories. Inventory, warehousing, distribution and transportation of product are among the many services offered to paper buyers. Also called a merchant.
Dividers
Tabbed sheets of index or other heavy stock, used to identify and separate specific sections of a book; used in loose-leaf and bound books.
Dot
Individual element of a halftone printing plate.
Dot Etching
Handwork on engravings and lithographic screened (halftone) negatives for correcting tonal values in either black-and-white or color work.
Dot Slurring
Smearing or elongation at the trailing edges of halftone dots.
Dot Spread
When halftone dots print larger than they were supposed to print.
Dots, Halftone
The individual subdivisions of a printed surface created with a halftone screen.
Double Burning
Combining the images on two or more films onto a single film to create a single image.
Double Varnish
Two applications of press varnish.
Double-Black Halftone Printing
A means of extending the range of density available with printing ink by printing twice with black ink, using two specially prepared halftone negatives. Also called double-black duotone.
Double-Deckle Paper
A paper having parallel deckle edges.
Double-Dot Halftone
Two halftone negatives combined onto one printing plate, having greater tonal range than a conventional halftone negatives. One negative reproduces highlight and shadows, the other middle tones. This is not to be confused with duotone or double-black printing.
Double-Thick Cover Stock
A cover stock composed of two sheets of 65 lb. Cover stock laminated together.
Doubling
(1) In printing, a press problem that generally occurs when sheets make contact with the blanket twice, once just before the impression point and the second time at the impression point, resulting in a double image. At times, with certain papers, the feeder will feed two sheets instead of one, and when pressures are extreme or out of balance, the blanket may slip at the pressure point, resulting in a slur or double image. (2) In stamping, a double impression in which the second impression or "hit" does not register perfectly over the first one.
Doughnut Hickey
A printing defect consisting of a solid printed area surrounded by an unprinted area.
Downtime
Duration of an unscheduled stoppage of machines or equipment (printing presses, papermaking machines, typesetting equipment, etc.), usually caused by malfunction.
Drag
Register trouble when the dot is enlarged toward the back (nongripper edge) of the sheet. See Slur.
Draw-Down
A term used to describe an ink chemist's method of roughly determining coating or ink. The application (by a blade or a bar) of a thin film of coating or ink to a piece of paper.
Drier
Any substance used to hasten drying of ink on paper.
Driers
Wet paper passes through these large cylindrical steam heated rolls that dry paper webs. The dry-end of the paper machine.
Drilling
Piercing of stacks of papers in a precision manner with round hollow drills at high speeds. Loose-leaf notebook paper is an example of drilled paper.
Drop-Out
In printing, halftone with no screen dots in the highlights or background. Also, color not sensed by optical reading devices. Also, ink colors which will not image a photographic plate.
Dry Back
The color change which occurs when ink dries.
Dry-End
On the paper machine, it is the section where the dryers, cutters, slitters and reels are located.
Dryer (drying oven)
Oven on web offset press through which the web of printed paper passes after it leaves the final printing unit. The drying process, standard when heat-set inks are used, heats the web to about 350 degrees Fahrenheit. Either gas or electricity dries the vehicles and air blasts drive off the volatile gases.
Drying Time
The time it takes for an ink to become rub- or tack-free.
Dummy
Page or set of pages assembled in the exact position, form and style desired for the finished piece of printed work. Used as a model or sample for the printer.
Duotone
Two-color halftone reproduction from black-and-white original.
Duplex
Paper having a different color on each side.
Dusting
The accumulation of loose particles from the paper on the nonimage areas of the blanket. Particles are of very small size.
Dye
An ink colorant that is soluble in vehicle or solvent.
Dye Transfer
Similar in appearance to a color photograph but different in the important respect that it is produced from a transparency by printing continuous tones of color dyes.
Dylux
A stable print specially sensitized on two-sided papers for proofing.

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