Glossary of Paper Terms

Glossary of Paper Terms

C

Caking
When printing, the spots of ink pigments on printing plates or press rollers, due to the vehicle carrying the ink not being able to hold the pigment in suspension.
Calcium Carbonate, CaCo3
Chemical used as a filler.
Calender Stacks
A vertical series of steel rolls at the end of the paper machine to increase the smoothness of the paper.
Calendering
To impart a smooth finish on paper by passing the web of paper between polished metal rolls to increase gloss and smoothness.
Caliper
The thickness of a sheet paper, in thousandths of an inch (points or mils).
Camera-Ready Art
Art work ready to be imaged onto film by the film house or printer's camera department.
Casebound
A book bound with a hard, cover.
Cellulose
For paper manufacturing, the primary component of the cell walls of wood fibers.
Cellulose fiber
The fiber remaining after bleaching and pulping of wood used in making paper.
Center spread
The facing pages in the center of a bound signature.
Chain lines
The lines on laid paper parallel with the grain; also referred to as "chain marks".
Chalking
Improper drying of ink. Ink vehicle has been absorbed too rapidly into the paper leaving a dry, weak pigment layer which dusts easily.
Character
A type fonts letter, number, symbol or a blank space in typesetting.
Character count
The number of characters in a line of text, page or group of text.
Chemical Ghosting
A light duplication of a printed image on the other side of the same sheet, created by chemical reaction by the ink during the drying stages; also referred to as "Gas ghosting".
Chemical Pulp
Wood fiber cooked using chemicals producing a pulp used to manufacture numerous printing papers and paperboard products. Papers manufactured with chemical pulp are called "free-sheet" papers.
Chip Board
An inexpensive thick one-ply cardboard, typically made from recycled paper stock.
Chlorine
Chlorine and its compounds were commonly used to bleach fibers. This has been mostly eliminated. Virgin fibers are generally ECF, meaning no elemental chlorine or TCF meaning the bleaching is done with hydrogen peroxide, oxygen or ozone. Recycled fibers are generally PCF, meaning they were put back into the paper without the use of any chlorine or its compounds. Environmental Defense approves calling 100% post consumer fiber produced without chlorine, TCF.
Choke
In preparing film negatives, the process used to reduce the thickness of the printed image.
Chromalin Proofs
A proofing process used in printing. This process utilizes photosensitized clear plastic which is exposed to the image and processed in layers of color to simulate the final printed image.
Cibachrome
A full-color positive photographic print made from a transparency.
Clear Formation
Describes paper fibers that are uniformly dispersed within a sheet of paper -a characteristic of quality paper.
Close Formation
Uniform density in a sheet of paper.
Cloudy Formation
Same as cloud effect; cloudy. Opposite of close formation. Indicates unevenness and lack of uniformity of fiber structure.
Cloudy Formation
A spotty, non-uniform collection of paper fibers, the opposite of clear formation.
Cockle Finish
A rough, uneven, hard paper finish. Most frequently manufactured in bond papers.
Cold Color
A color on the bluish side.
Collate
In binding, gathering sections (signatures) in sequence for binding.
Color Bars
Printed bars of ink colors used to monitor a print image. These bars show the amount of ink to be applied by the press, the registration, and the densities across the press sheet.
Color Comp
A mockup of a proposed layout used for presentations.
Color Correction
Any method to improve color rendition.
Color Fastness
The ability of dyed paper to maintain in the presence of exposure to light, heat etc.
Color Guide
Instructions attached to artwork or disc with the location, percentage, and type of color required.
Color Key
An overlay proof with just one color per sheet of acetate (3M Company Trademark)
Color Process Printing
Printing done using cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks, each requiring its own negative and plate. Also called process color or four-color process.
Color Proofs
Initial printed pieces pulled off the press for final approval.
Color Scanner (electronic scanner)
A scanner that makes the color separation required in full color processing printing.
Color Separation
The method used in breaking down the primary colors needed to prepare plates for printing color work.
Commercial Match
Paper manufactured to within acceptable tolerances of a sample provided to the mill.
Commodity Papers
A classification of low-quality bond and offset papers.
Composite Image
Multiple pictures images placed together to form a single, combined picture.
Comprehensive Layout
A simulation of a layout by a designer to show how the finished art work would appear.
Comprehensive Proof
Final proof presented in the format the printed piece will take.
Condensed Face or Condensed Type
A particular typeface that allows more print per line, as though the letters were squashed at their sides.
Conditioning
Allowing paper to adjust itself to the temperature and humidity of the printing plant prior to use.
Conservation
The preservation and responsible use of our natural resources to ensure they endure. ENVIRONMENT® Papers are an excellent choice because they conserve trees, water, chemicals, energy and landfill space.
Continuous Tone
Tonal gradation without use of halftone dots.
Converter
Company that converts paper from its original form to usable products such as envelopes, label stock, announcements etc.
Correspondence Papers
Writing papers in attractive finishes, weights or colors.
Cotton Content Paper
Papers utilizing cotton fabrics and cotton linters. Today most cotton content papers are made for letterhead applications. Papers made with cotton range from 25% to 100% cotton content. NEENAH® Bond; ATLAS™ Bond; OLD COUNCIL TREE® Bond; CLASSIC COTTON®.
Cotton Linters
The cotton fibers that adhere to the cottonseed used to produce pulp for cotton fiber papers.
Couch Roll
On a paper making machine the equipment that helps remove excess water from the moving web of paper prior to the wet press section of a paper machine.
Cover Paper
Durable, heavier weight papers, available in a variety of finishes and colors, used for the cover of pamphlets, annual reports, business cards, etc…
Crop Marks
Specifically placed marks attached to artwork that show the area to be printed.
Crop Residue
An alternative source of fiber for paper making. Although rigorous use does have some environmental consequence, they are a clean and renewable source of cellulose. Neenah Paper has two colors in ENVIRONMENT® Papers that are made with sugar cane or bagasse.
Cropping
Resizing original photographs or illustrations to a different size.
Cross Direction
The opposite direction of the grain of the paper.
Cross Grain Fold
A fold at a right angle to the direction of the grain in the paper.
Cross
machine direction A line perpendicular to the direction the paper travels through the papermaking machine. Also referred to as Cross direction or Cross grain.
Curl
Undesirable distortion or waviness occurring to the paper due to the presence of excess moisture or humidity.
Cut Size
Papers cut 8 ½ x 11, 8 ½ x 14, or any other size 11 x 17 or smaller.
Cut to Register
Term used for watermarked letterhead papers to indicate the watermark will be cut to appear in a predetermined position on the finished sheet. Also referred to as a localized watermark.
Cutter Dust
Paper dust resulting from cutting or trimming the paper which can transfer to printing blankets causing problems during a press run.
Cyan (process blue)
One of the four-process colors.

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